3-4. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most perilous nature, equipped in a manner with would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement.
equipped in a manner…thought是过去分词短语，作原因状语，修饰faced。at the thought后省略了of the manner。
a perilous rate of inflation 危机四伏的通货膨胀率
shudder at：对……感到惊恐（to think that something is very bad or unpleasant），
He shudders at the sight of a snake.
go out of their way to do something：特地；不怕麻烦地（to do something with more effort than is usual or expected），
She went out of her way to help me.
3-5. They had a single aim, a solitary goal—the top!
从语法角度分析，a solitary goal和the top均是a single aim的同位语。从修辞角度看，作者以改变说法的方式达到加强语意的目的。这叫修正法（epanorthosis）。破折号引出被强调部分。
solitary：独一无二的（used to emphasize that there is only one of something），
a solitary exception 唯一的例外
3-6. It is hard for us to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers.
it是形式主语，to realize nowadays how difficult it was for the pioneers是真正的主语。请掌握It is hard for sb. to do something.这个句型。
pioneer:先驱（someone who is important in the early development of something, and whose work or ideas are later developed by other people），
a pioneer of photography 摄影术创始人
a pioneer in the development of radar 雷达研制的先驱
3-7. Except for one or two places such as Zermatt and Chamonix, which had rapidly become popular, Alpine village tended to be impoverished settlements cut off from civilization by the high mountains.
such as可以分开，如such places as…，这时as作关系代词，as引出的从句是省略句。such as不分开时其作用相当于like，表示举例。因此可以把such…Chamonix视为修饰places的定语。cut off from civilization by the high mountains是过去分词短语作定语，修饰settlements。
I know nothing about him except for the fact that he lives next door.
impoverish：使穷困，使赤贫（to make some one very poor），形容词为impoverished，名词形式为impoverishment。