新概念第二册自学导读 Lessons10-11

2011/7/6 14:37:21

课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.One good turn deserves another,(标题)礼尚往来。

(1)名词turn的含义之一是“(帮助或损害他人的)举动”、“行为”:

Yesterday George did me a good/ an ill turn.

乔治昨天做了一件对我有利/不利的事。

He is always ready to do a turn for others.

他总是乐于为他人做好事。

(2)deserve的意义为“应受”、“应得(奖赏、惩罚等)”、“值得”,通常为及物动词:

His words deserve attention.

他的话值得注意。

Mary deserves the prize.

玛丽应得这个奖。

2.He gets a good salary…他的薪水很高……

good在这里的意思是“相当大/多的”、“相当可观的”:

It takes me a good three hours to get there.

我花了整整3小时才到达那里。

3.…but he always borrows money from his friends and never pays it back. ……但他却总是向朋友借钱,并且从来不还。

(1)连词and在这句话中可解释为“并且”、“另外”(in addition)。

(2)pay在这里的意思是“偿还(债务等)”。

pay还可以解释为“付”、“支付(价款、账单等)”,如课文的最后一句话:

…so now you can pay for my dinner!

……所以现在你可以替我付饭钱了!

pay 既是及物动词也可以是不及物动词:

How much did you pay for that dress?

那件衣服你花了多少钱?

I paid the bill.

我付了账。

语法 Grammar in use

1.在前10课的语法中,我们比较了一般过去时、一般现在时、现在完成时、现在进行时和过去进行时等时态以及和它们相关的时间状语,另外还学习了被动语态。现在我们通过例句简要回顾一下所学过的内容:

2.动词+名词/代词+ 带to 的不定式

某些动词之后的带to的不定式之前可以有一个名词或代词。有些动词后的名词/代词可有可无,但有和没有经常影响整个句子的意义:

I want to speak to John.

我想和约翰谈话。(=I will speak.)

I want you to speak to John.

我希望你和约翰谈谈。(=You will speak.)

但是,还有一些动词后面用不定式作宾语时,其后通常必须有一名词或代词。这类动词有:allow, advise, help, teach, tell, request等等。这类动词不但可用于主动语态,也可用于被动语态:

Mr. Turner did not allow us to see the picture.

特纳先生没让我们看那幅画。

We were not allowed to see the picture.

人们不许我们看那幅画。

He taught me to paint.

他教我绘画。

Jane helped Julie to cook the meal.

简帮着朱莉做饭。

词汇学习 Word study

1.salary与wage

salary可译为“薪金”、“薪水”,通常指职员、脑力劳动者(如律师、教师、医生等)的收入,数额比较固定,一般按月支付:

My salary is paid on the 28th of the month.

我每月28号领工资。

wage可译为“工资”、“工钱”,通常指技工或一般体力劳动者的收入,按周或天支付。wage一般用复数形式wages:

When I worked as a waiter, the wages were low, but the tips were good.

我当侍者时工资不高,但小费可观。

Women often get low wages.

妇女的报酬通常很低。

2.borrow与lend

borrow的意思是“借”、“借入”,经常与from连用:

He borrowed my pen yesterday. He hasn't given me it yet.

他昨天借了我的钢笔,到现在他还没有还我。

Can I borrow £ 20 from you please? I'll pay/ give it back tomorrow.

我能从您这里借20英镑吗?我明天就还给您。

lend的意思是“把……借给”、“借出”,经常与介词to连用:

He refused to lend any money to Tom.

他不肯借给汤姆钱。

Can you lend me £ 20 please? I'll pay/ give it back tomorrow.

您能借给我20英镑吗?我明天就还给您。

Can you lend your car to me this afternoon?

你今天下午能把车借我用一下吗?

练习答案 Key to written exercises

1.关键句型练习答案

A a he is now working (1.2)

b he gets (1.3); he always borrows (1.3); never pays it back (1.4)

c came in…worked (11.2-2); Tony saw (1.4); came and sat (1.4); I asked him (1.6); he gave me (1.7); Tony said (1.8)

d He has never borrowed (1.5); I have never borrowed (1.7)

e I was having (1.1); he was eating (1.6)

C 1 gets…got

2 have not had

3 was writing…talked/ were talking

4 am typing

5 passed/ were passing

D The Taj Mahal was built…after he became/ had become ruler, his wife…died. The Taj Mahal was built in her honour. Experts were called in…The Taj Mahal, which was begun in 1632 and (was) completed in 1654, cost a fortune…it has been visited by…

2.难点练习答案

a

A 1 The officer ordered the men to fire at the enemy.

2 He wants his wife to wear this dress.

3 She wants us to explain it.

4 I cannot allow him to enter the room.

B (sample sentences)

1 He asked me to help him.

2 We preferred her to stay at home.

3 He taught me to speak English.

4 My mother wished me to collect the laundry.

5 Do you want her to visit you?

b

1 salary  2 lent…salary/ wages  3 borrowed  4 wages  5 wages

3.多项选择题答案

1 b  2 b  3 b  4 a  5 b  6 c

7 c  8 a  9 c  10 c  11b  12 d

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